Carol Kline, PhD

HTM Career Hub Facebook group

Hospitality & Tourism Management Program Director, Professor

  • PhD Tourism Planning & Policy, North Carolina State University
  • MS Parks, Recreation, & Tourism Management, North Carolina State University
  • BA Psychology, Wake Forest University

Carol works with Dr. Dana Clark in the Hospitality and Tourism Management program. She teaches the introductory class for the program, a Food & Beverage Management course, and developed the Department's first Sustainable Tourism course. Carol has co-directed many study abroad programs to Ghana and to Cuba; her most recent courses were to the Galapagos Islands, the French Alps, and Costa Rica. She enjoys working with students on developing their internship plans each summer. Her research interests focus broadly on tourism planning and development and tourism sustainability but cover a range of topics such as foodie segmentation, craft beverages, agritourism, animal welfare in tourism, tourism entrepreneurship, niche tourism markets, and tourism impacts to communities. She recently edited two volumes about the ethics of eating animals within the context of tourism: Animals, Food & Tourism and Tourism Experiences & Animal Consumption: Contested Values, Morality, & Ethics. Additionally, she is part of a network of researchers who focus on Race, Ethnicity, & Social Equity in Tourism (RESET), an effort headed by Dr. Derek Alderman (University of Tennessee), Dr. Stefanie Benjamin (University of Tennessee), and Dr. Alana Dillette (San Diego State University).

Prior to coming to Appalachian, Carol worked at East Carolina's Center for Sustainable Tourism and the Department of Recreation & Leisure Studies. She taught at North Carolina Central University's Hospitality & Tourism Administration program for two years, and worked with Cooperative Extension for ten years to provide outreach on tourism development issues to North Carolina's rural communities. She also served for two years as Director of Tourism for HandMade in America located in Asheville. Carol has consulted in a variety of geographical and cultural settings but is happy to call North Carolina home.

Recent Publications

Kline, C., & Fischer, B. (2021).  Morality on holiday: inspiring ethical behaviour in animal-based tourism through nonmoral values. Tourism Recreation Research, 1-12.

Knollenberg, W., Duffy, L. N., Kline, C., & Kim, G. (2021). Creating competitive advantage for food tourism destinations through food and beverage experiences. Tourism Planning & Development18(4), 379-397.

Kline, C. (2021). Socialising animal-based tourism. In Higgins-Desbiolles, F., Doering, A., & Bigby, B. C. (Eds.). Socialising Tourism: Rethinking Tourism for Social and Ecological Justice. (pp. 195-213). Routledge.

Rickly, J. M., & Kline, C. (Eds.). (2021). Exploring non-human work in tourism: From beasts of burden to animal ambassadors [edited book].  Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG.

Rickly, J. M., & Kline, C. (2021). 1 Introduction: Working for the (hu) man in the tourism industry. In Exploring non-human work in tourism (pp. 1-18). De Gruyter Oldenbourg.

Kline, C., von Essen, E., Lindsjö, J., Fouache, A., Tickle, L., Dashper, K., ... & Rickly, J. M. (2021). 14 Working animal research: An agenda for the future. In Exploring non-human work in tourism (pp. 243-252). De Gruyter Oldenbourg.

Kline, C., Duffy, L., & Clark, D. (2020). Fostering tourism and entrepreneurship in fringe communities: Unpacking stakeholder perceptions towards entrepreneurial climate. Tourism & Hospitality Research, 20(1), 3–17.

Knollenberg, W., Kline, C., Jordan, E., & Boley, B. B. (2020). Will US travelers be good guests to Cuba? Examining US traveler segments' sustainable behavior and interest in visiting Cuba. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management18, 100505.

Lapan, C., Greenwood, J., & Kline, C. (2020). Eating Sustainably: Protein Consumption at Home, at Restaurants, and While Traveling. Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism4(4), 193-208.

Benjamin, S., & Kline, C. (2019). How to yes-and: Using improvisational games to improv(e) communication, listening, and collaboration techniques in tourism and hospitality education. Journal of Hospitality Leisure Sport & Tourism Education, 24, 130–142.

Kline, C., Lee, S. J., & Knollenberg, W. (2018). Segmenting foodies for a foodie destination. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 35(9), 1234–1245.

Kline, C., Rusher, RC. (2018). Between awareness and activism: navigating the ethical terrain of eating animals. In Bryan S. R. Grimwood, Kellee Caton, Lisa Cooke (Eds.) New Moral Natures in Tourism. Routledge.

Kline, C. (2018). Animals, Food & Tourism [edited book]. Routledge/Taylor & Francis: The fishy ethics of seafood tourism [book chapter] Co-authored with Max Elder & Animals and tourism: Transcending the anthrocentric duality of utility [concluding book chapter]

Kline, C. (2018). Tourism Experiences & Animal Consumption: Contested Values, Morality, & Ethics [edited book]. Routledge/Taylor & Francis: Abstracting animals through tourism [concluding book chapter]

Duffy, L. & Kline, C. (2018) Complexities of Tourism Planning and Development in Cuba. Tourism Planning & Development, 15:3, 211-215.

Slocum, Susan L., Knollenberg, W., Kline, C. Demand for Specialty Food Initiatives: Considerations for Meeting Planning and Destination Management. (2018) Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism (3) 17–30.

Kline, C., McGehee, N., Delconte, J. (2018) Built Capital as a catalyst for Community-Based Tourism. Journal of Travel Research.

Kline, C., Duffy, L., Clark, D., Fostering tourism and entrepreneurship in fringe communities: Unpacking stakeholder perceptions towards entrepreneurial climate. (2018) Tourism and Hospitality Research.

Mottiar, Z., Boluk, K., & Kline, C. (2018). Social Entrepreneurs in Rural Destination Development. Annals of Tourism Research.

Slocum, S., Knollenberg, W., & Kline. C. (2018). Demand for sustainable food initiatives at meetings: Considerations for destination management. Gastronomy & Tourism 3(1).

Joyner, J., Kline, C., Oliver, J., & Kariko, D. (2018). Exploring Emotional Response to Images Used in Agritourism Destination Marketing. Journal of Destination Management & Marketing

Boley, B. Jordan, E., Kline, C. & Knollenberg, W. (2017). Social Return and Intent to Travel. Tourism Management.

Jordan, E. J., Boley, B. B., Knollenberg, W., & Kline, C. (2017). Predictors of intention to travel to Cuba across three time horizons: An application of the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Travel Research.

Duffy, L.N., Kline, C., Swanson, J. R., Best, M., & McKinnon, H. (2017) Community development through agroecotourism in Cuba: an application of the community capitals framework, Journal of Ecotourism, 16:3, 203-221, DOI: 10.1080/14724049.2016.1218498.

Hoggard, W., Avenarius, C., Kline, C. & Ward, W. (2018). Diversifying Eastern North Carolina Heritage Sites: Tour Guides’ Perspectives. Journal of Heritage Tourism (no issue/volume assigned yet).


HOS 2000 Survey of the Hospitality & Tourism Industry; HOS 3700 Food & Beverage Management; HOS 3100 Sustainable Tourism. Craft Beverages Tourism (Special topics course). Animals, Tourism, & Sustainability (Special topics course).

Research Interests

Research interests focus broadly on tourism sustainability, but most recently Carol has shifted her research focus to animal ethics in tourism.

Title: Hospitality & Tourism Management Program Director, Professor
Department: Department of Management

Email address: Email me

Phone: (828) 262-6222

Fax: (828) 262-8685

Office address
4078 Peacock Hall